Kumar Himanshu (Undergraduate Student) needs a second opinion on this medical case.
This is oral candidiasis, also called oral thrush, which is caused by a fungal infections involving the skin and mucous membranes. The causative agent is Candida albicans ( but, can be C. glabrata Or C. tropicalis also)which actually is an asymptotic inhabitant in half of the healthy adults. In healthy individuals, Candida exists harmlessly in mucus membranes such as your ears, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, mouth, nose, reproductive organs, sinuses, skin, stool and vagina, etc. It is known as your “beneficial flora” and has a useful purpose in the body. When an imbalance in the normal flora occurs, it causes an overgrowth of Candida albicans which may lead to an opportunistic infection. The mucosal surfaces primarily affected by candidiasis are the oral cavity, esophagus, angles of the mouth, and genitals. Overgrowth of Candida is protected against by local T cells and interleukin-17 Thus, when immunity is compromised, growth proceeds unchecked and leads to infection, notably in patients who are on immunosuppressive therapy, infected by HIV, or have diabetes. Candidiasis in the mouth, throat, or esophagus is usually treated with antifungal medications such as clotrimazole, miconazole, or nystatin. If treatment is not working amphotericin B may be used.
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